Thursday, February 07, 2008
A look at Visas
In looking at the visas there seems to about 47 different visas foreign workers or dependents of foreign workers can get to come into this country. I have them listed at the bottom of this post. The ones that prevail in this area are J-1 Student visas, and H2-A Agricultural Worker visas. The J-1 visa holders are the foreign students that work at the beach in Ocean City and Rehoboth. The H2-B visa holders work at the crab picking plants and H2-A workers at farms. In spite of the decreased American Dollar buying power I am sure we will have a flood of these workers again this year. The beach area imports about 5,000 Eastern European workers from Russia, Romania, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, etc. I understand these workers are frequently taken advantage of once they arrive here and it is not an infrequent thing to cheat them out of their last paycheck since they are known to be leaving the country. At the beach blog carries a link on their site to a guide for International Student workers planning to visit our beach resorts.
There is also the often heard of H1-B visa which is for skilled workers (engineers and programmers). They usually will work for 20 to 40% less than an American engineer or programmers so they are in big demand also.
The Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) bars the admission of any alien who
Seeks to enter the U.S. to perform skilled or unskilled labor. The Secretary of Labor must determine that there are not sufficient U.S. workers who are able, willing, qualified, and available at the time of the alien’s application for a visa and admission to the United States and at the place where the alien is to perform such skilled or unskilled labor. The Secretary of Labor must further certify that the employment of the alien will not adversely affect the wages and working conditions of similarly employed workers in the United States. The foreign labor certification program in the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) is responsible for ensuring that foreign workers do not displace or adversely affect
Working conditions of U.S. workers. So when you are unemployed you can thank your government for first, allowing American companies to send your job to a foreign country and second, ensuring you won’t even get a temporary $8.50 an hour job with no benefits because the government allow foreign workers in to take the job. Boycott operations like Phillips Food and Seafood Restaurants.
TYPE OF VISA
A-1 Foreign Diplomatic Personnel A-2 Individuals in the U.S. as employees of a foreign government, e.g., ambassador, minister, diplomat, or consular officer.
Dependent of A-1/A-2 Visa Holder Immediate family members of foreign government officials. (Dependents also carry A-1/A- 2 status.)
A-3 Employee of Foreign Government Officials May be employed only by foreign government entity. Attendants, servants, or other personal employees of foreign governments officials.
B-1 Visitor for Business Individuals in the U.S. for a short time to engage in business activities such as negotiating contracts for overseas employees, consulting with business associates, attending professional conferences, or conducting independent research.
B-2 Visitor for Tourism Individuals in the U.S. for travel, tourism, or recreation.
B-2 Prospective Student or Prospective Scholar Individual who enter the U.S. indicating a clear intent to study here or to change to J-1 Exchange Visitor Status. Consulate notation on visa page indicates "Prospective" status. Individual must apply for a change of status before the expiration date on the I-94.
C-1 Aliens in Transit Individuals in transit from one country to another "stopping over" in the U.S.
D-l/D-2 Alien Crewman Crew members employed on a vessel or aircraft who are in the U.S. on "stopovers."
E-1 Treaty Trader Individuals in the U.S. to conduct trade under a treaty between their country and the U.S., and keys employees of companies trading under such a treaty.
E-2 Treaty Investor Individuals in the U.S. to develop and direct the operations of an enterprise in which they have invested substantial capital, and employees of companies making such investments. Must be based on a treaty between visa holder's country and the U.S.
F-1 Student Individuals in the U.S. engaging in a full course of academic study in an accredited educational program. May exclude elementary school, academic high school, college/university, conservatory, or language training. (Students enrolled in vocational training are given M-1 visas.)
F-2 Dependents of F-1 Visa Holders Individuals in the U.S. as dependents of an F-1 visa holder.
Visa Waiver for Business (VWB) and Tourism (VWT) Individuals permitted to enter the U.S. without a visa for a stay limited to 90 days. Available only to citizens of countries designated by the U.S. State Department.
G-1 Representative of International Organization
G-2, G-3, and G-4 Individuals in the U.S. as representatives of an international organization-e.g., the United Nations and their dependents.
G-5 Personal Employee of G Visa Holders Individuals in the U.S. as personal employees of a representative of an international organization.
H-1A Registered Nurse Individuals in the U.S. to perform professional nursing services for a specific employer for a fixed period of time.
H-1B Temporary Worker in a Specialty Occupation Individuals in the U.S. to perform professional services for a sponsoring employer in a specific position for a fixed period of time. Employment authorization is granted for an initial period of up to 3 years. Extensions for an additional 3 years are possible.
H-2A Agricultural Worker Individuals in the U.S. to perform agricultural work on a temporary basis.
H-2B Skilled or Unskilled Worker Individuals in the U.S. in a temporary position for which a shortage of U.S. workers exists, working for a specific employer for a fixed period of time. Requires Alien Labor Certification approval.
H-3 Trainee Individuals in the U.S. for a temporary period to participate in a training program provided by a specific employer.
H-4 Dependent of H Visa Holder Individuals in the U.S. as dependents of an "H" visa holder.
I Representative of Foreign Information Media Individuals in the U.S. as journalists or representatives of international media, and their dependents.
J-1 Exchange Visitor (Student) Individuals in the U.S. as exchange visitors for the primary purpose of studying at an academic institution under the auspices of the United States Information Agency and a Designated Program Sponsor.
J-1 Exchange Visitor (Short- term Scholar, Professor, Researcher, or Specialist) Individuals in the U.S. as visiting researchers or professors under the auspices of the United States Information Agency and a Designated Program Sponsor.
J-1 Au Pair Individuals in the U.S. under the auspices of the U.S. Information Agency and a Designated Program Sponsor to serve as a live-in child-care provider for a host family.
J-2 Dependents of J-1 Visa Holder Individuals in the U.S. as a dependent (spouse or unmarried child under the age of 21) of a J-1 student or scholar.
L-1 Intracompany Transferee Individuals in the U.S. who have been transferred from a subsidiary, affiliate, or branch office overseas to the U.S. to work in an executive, managerial, or specialist capacity, and their dependents.
L-2 Dependent of L-1 Visa Holder
M-1 Vocational Student Individuals enrolled in a vocational school or program in the U.S.
M-2 Dependent of M-1 Visa Holder Individuals in the U.S. as dependents of an M-1 student.
NATO 1-6 NATO Personnel Individuals in the U.S. as members of the armed services of the nations of the North Atlantic Treaty Origination, staff members, attendants, servants, and personal employees of NATO personnel.
O-1 Person of Extraordinary Ability Individual of extraordinary ability in the science, arts, education, business, or athletics who are in the U.S. to work for a sponsoring employer or organization(O-1), and their accompanying personnel (O-2).
O-2 Accompanying Personnel
O-3 Dependent of O-1 and O-2 Visa Holder Individuals in the U.S. as dependents of O-1 and O-2 visa holders.
P-1 Internationally Recognized Athlete / Entertainment Group, Essential Support Personnel Individuals in the U.S. as internationally recognized athletes competing individually or as part of a team, or individuals performing as part of an entertainment group that has been internationally recognized, and their essential support personnel.
P-2 Artist or Entertainer Under a Reciprocal Exchange Program. Individuals in the U.S. as artists or entertainers, operating individually or as a group, who will be performing under a reciprocal exchange program between an organization in the U.S. and one in a foreign state.
P-3 Artist or Entertainer in a Culturally Unique Program Individuals in the U.S. as artists or entertainers, individually or as a group, recognized for excellence in developing, interpreting, representing, coaching, or teaching a unique or traditional ethnic, folk, cultural, musical, theatrical, or artistic performance or presentation.
P-4 Dependent of P-1, P-2, or P-3 Visa Holder Individuals in the U.S. as dependents of holder of a P-1, P-2, or P-3 visa.
Q Participant in an International Cultural Exchange Program Individuals in the U.S. as participants in an international cultural exchange visitors program approved by the Attorney General to provide practical training, employment, and the sharing of the history, culture, and traditions of the foreign national's country ("Disney Visa").
R-l Religious Worker Individuals in the U.S. as members of a bona fide religious denomination carrying out the activities of a religious worker.
R-2 Dependent of R-1 Visa Holder Individuals in the U.S. as dependents of an R-1 visa holder.
TN Trade NAFTA (for citizens of Canada & Mexico) Individuals in the U.S. to perform professional services for a sponsoring employer in a specific position for a fixed period of time.
T-D Dependent of TN Visa Holder Individuals in the U.S. as dependents of the holder of a TN visa.