Saturday, January 26, 2008

The Palmer and Washingtonian Wreck 1915

On January 26, 1915 between Indian River and Fenwick the 300 foot, five mast schooner Elizabeth Palmer and the 407 foot, Steamship Washingtonian collide. Both ships sunk. The N Y Times reported the accident. One man was lost.

The Elizabeth Palmer was built in Bath, Maine in 1903. The vessel was 300 foot and more than 3,000 gross tons. She was sailing from Boston to Norfork for a load of Coal. The Washingtonian crossed her bow and she hit the Washingtonian causing it to sink in ten minutes. Captain George A. Carlisle of the Elizabeth Palmer said it was the Washingtonian fault and quoted the old Sail Over Power law. No members of the Elizabeth Palmer were lost. The Elizabeth Palmer severely damaged, sank about two days later. The Coast Guard dynamited the wreck shortly after the sinking. The Elizabeth Palmer had been involved in another collision in which it sank the Estelle Phinney on December 27, 1907 off Barnegat, N. J.

The American- Hawaiian line Steamship Washingtonian was on her first voyage. She had just been built a few months before at Sparrows Point Maryland. She left Honolulu on December 30th and cleared the Panama canal on January 19th. Loaded with 10,000 tons of raw sugar, the loss of the sugar created a slight sugar shortage in the United States. One man, Herman Meyer, was lost but the other 39 were saved.

On the dive circuit of ships sunk off the coast. The Washingtonian is in about 90 foot of water and the Elizabeth Palmer is in about 80 foot of water. Both are popular dive sites.

Dr. Long

Dr. Long, our local vet, went to University Hospital in Baltimore for a lung transplant early this morning. The last word I heard was he was doing OK and the operation so far is successful.

Snow Storm of 1940

From Bi State Weekly January 26, 1940


Delmar is digging its way out of the eighteen inches of snow which fell Tuesday night and Wednesday during the worst blizzard since 1899. With only the main highway, U. S. Route 13 open to traffic, snow plows are busy keeping it open and have not tried to open country roads. In some places the snow had drifted to a height of eight to ten feet. Many of the stores on Railroad Avenue found it necessary to dig through ten feet of snow before they were able to open Wednesday for business.

Although no school was held in either the Delaware or Maryland side of town on Wednesday, both schools opened Thursday, but the principals stated that they thought it impossible for school buses to run for the country children. This will mean the attendance will average about fifty per cent of the total enrollment.

All the streets in Delmar except State Street and R. R. Avenue were closed to motor traffic on Wednesday. Mayor Leroy T. Lockerman had a crew of men out all day making paths down the center of the streets so that people could walk but none were wide enough for cars. Until late Wednesday night a large tractor with a plow behind was attempting to open the streets with little success. Thursday morning a few cars and trucks were able to get along with difficulty.

The railroad was hard hit by the storm and many snow plows were ordered out early Wednesday morning on the branch roads. Trains were an hour or more late in their schedule.

Several of the trains, both freight and passenger, were held up several hours because the company was unable to contact a crew to run them. All extra men living in Delmar were called for the snow plows and those living outside of Delmar were unable to reach the yard. Many of the older regular men reported off because of the bad weather and it was necessary to use freight crews on the passenger trains. Some men were called to work who hadn’t worked for ten years on the railroad but whose names were still on the roster.

Residents of Delmar working in Seaford and Salisbury were unable to get their cars out to go to work and consequently the local phone operator was swamped with calls through the morning.

Conditions are expected to be normal in this section by the week end.

There was no milk delivered in Delmar until late Wednesday afternoon and then only half of the town was served. There was no morning mail delivery, but one was made in the afternoon. Rural mail carriers were unable to leave the post office all day Wednesday, and Thursday they could only serve those people living on the main roads. One of them stated that it would be impossible to serve some sections for at least four or five days. The doctors have been caring for the many people suffering with colds and other ailments, by going on foot, but have been unable to visit country patients.

Friday, January 25, 2008

Robert Cummings Visit To Delmar - 1946

First for those younger than 50 you are asking who is Robert Cummings? Robert Cummings was an actor who played in Movies and Television from the 1930's on up until his death in 1990. He was a pilot and frequently in his TV shows or movies he played a pilot. He played in over a hundred movies and just as many TV shows. He never quite reached legendary fame as a movie star as other actors of the period. I remember him more for his obsession with taking vitamin pills and other diet related foods. I seem to recall him taking over a hundred pills a day. Like Dick Clark he seem to stay a certain age and never really looked his age when he was older.

He had a TV show called Love That Bob

So why was he in Delmar? Mrs. Robert Vincent, of Delmar Maryland, won a contest in 1946 called "How I would like to spend a day with Robert Cummings." She said she would like for him to spend the day helping her husband and his father run their Delmar grocery store. The Grocery store at 301 Pine Street was called J. R. Hines and Sons.

Mrs. Vincent was the former Edith Hudson and had just been discharged from the Army Nurses Corp as a First lieutenant. She had served 17 months in Europe.

The Avenue theater had a special showing of his movie "The Bride Wore Boots" also starring Barbara Stanwyck, for the visit.

From The Bi-State Weekly October 11, 1946


There was excitement a plenty in Delmar and hundreds turned out to greet Robert Cummings when he came to Delmar to keep a date with Mrs. Robert J. Vincent, who had won the movie and screen star for one day in a national radio contest.

Cummings and his wife arrived at the Salisbury Airport in their own plane last Thursday, where they were met by Mr. and Mrs. Vincent and a group numbering about 1000 persons. Arriving in Delmar, the Cummings and their welcoming party had lunch at the Rainbow Grille. Then Mr. Cummings helped Mr. Vincent wait on customers at the J. R. Hines Grocery Store. The store was crowded during the afternoon, many of whom were more interested in seeing the movie star than in buying groceries, although business was brisk, and the sales amounted to a neat sum.

Cummings role as clerk in the store was the outcome of a contest in which Mrs. Vincent’s letter was judged the best in 42,000 received from all over the U. S. on how they would like to spend a day with Robert Cummings. Mrs. Vincent asked that the movie star come to Delmar and help her husband run the grocery store for a day.

After playing grocery boy, Mr. Cummings was taken to the S. N. Culver Clothing store, and presented with a new hat by the manager, Howard T. Waller.

The Vincents and Mr. and Mrs. Cummings had dinner at the Vincent’s apartment in a sort of family affair. Then they went to the Avenue Theater, where Cummings picture, “The Bride Were Boots” was playing. The theatre was packed and many stood outside on the street.

Later a party at the Cozy Cabin Club on the Delmar Road in celebration of Mrs. Vincent’s birthday, brought an end to the activities of the day which could well be termed “A Perfect Day”.

Cummings and his wife, the former screen and stage actress, Mary Elliott, left the Salisbury Airport Friday morning in their red rocket-powered two seater plane for their return trip to Hollywood.

Of the Eastern shore, Mr. Cummings said “It is beautiful country,” and Delmar reminded him so much of the little railroad town in “King’s Row”, a picture in which he starred.

Real Paydays

Friday, the traditional payday. Takes me back to when I worked and payday was the high light of the week. It also makes me think when I had actual paydays - I am not talking about a paycheck being handed you or an remittance advice that your pay has been placed in your bank account I am talking being paid in cash. Now I know there is a whole underground workforce today that is paid in cash but back in the 1960's there were legitimate companies that paid in cash.

I am talking being given silver certificates backed by silver not this crap they print today. The dollar bill had printed on it; "This certifies that there is on deposit in the Treasury of the United States of America one dollar in silver payable to the bearer on demand." Now days what should be printed on the dollar is "Pray to God it is worth as much when you receive it as when you spend it."

I am talking all coins above a nickel being made out of silver.

I am talking real silver dollars not some quarter size gold painted thing.

Even in the Military in 1965 I was paid in cash. The Japanese island I was stationed on had no American banks so when you were paid (once a month) you would go to a series of tables.
At the first table you received your check.
At the second table you endorsed it and were given cash.
At the third table you purchased Japanese Yen - at 360 yen to the dollar not the 107 yen to the dollar that is today's rate.
At the fourth table you paid your share for the costs of maids, kitchen help, and grounds keepers
The fifth table was where the Indian Tailors and local bar keepers hung out to collect the bills you owed them.
What was left would see you thru for another month. Your saving account was stuffing cash in a spare pair of shoes.

The Economy

Now there is talk of an economic stimulus in which maybe we will receive a check for $800, altho they are not sure. I have complete expectations, since this is an election year, that some kind of money will be given out. Let's see $800 will just about buy 250 gallons of heating oil. They just don't get it. If you (as in the USA) are in debt, does it make sense to give money back? This is what happens when you elect people who have law degrees. The stock market finally started to go down to a level where it should be and the Federal reserve decided to cut interest rates to stop the down fall. There are people out there waiting to buy stock and are holding off until they figure this thing will bottom out. It will not bottom out as long as the FED is messing with it. This means people are not going to invest in the stock market.

I can understand people being in a panic over the stock market as there is a large number of baby boomers about to retire and they are looking at the value of their 401 K plans dropping. Well they might as well get use to the fact the stock market goes up and down. As long as they aren't cashing in all their 401K they will see the value return.

The Presidential candidates are not responding to this problem. Since most have law degrees and lawyer's stock in trade is the precedence it will mean nothing will change. Ron Paul is the only one that makes any sense.

Once again the Federal Government has screwed me over. We had a CD mature Thursday so Tuesday I called around to check interest rates. Tuesday afternoon the Federal Reserve decided to cut interest rates so by Thursday all the banks had lowered their rates about 3/4 of a percent. We would do as well putting our money in a mayonnaise jar and burying it in the backyard as put it in the bank with these interest rates. The government as usual is encouraging debt and is against anyone who saves. Yet they piss and moan about how little Americans save as compared to other nations.

Today's Quote

The budget should be balanced. Public debt should be reduced. The arrogance of officialdom should be tempered. And assistance to foreign lands should be curtailed lest Rome become bankrupt

Thursday, January 24, 2008

Why I Love Retirement

Why I Love Retirement
Got this from Grouchy Old Cripple

And They Ask---Why I Like Retirement????

Question: How many days in a week?
Answer: 6 Saturdays, 1 Sunday

Question: When is a retiree's bedtime?
Answer: Three hours after he falls asleep on the couch.

Question: How many retirees to change a light bulb?
Answer: Only one, but it might take all day.

Question: What's the biggest gripe of retirees?
Answer: There is not enough time to get everything done.

Question: Why don't retirees mind being called Seniors?
Answer: The term comes with a 10% percent discount.

Question: Among retirees what is considered formal attire?
Answer: Tied shoes.

Question: Why do retirees count pennies?
Answer: They are the only ones who have the time.

Question: What is the common term for someone who enjoys work and refuses to retire?
Answer: NUTS!

Question: Why are retirees so slow to clean out the basement, attic or garage?
Answer: They know that as soon as they do, one of their adult kids will want to store stuff there.

Question: What do retirees call a long lunch?
Answer: Normal

Question: What is the best way to describe retirement?
Answer: The never ending Coffee Break.

Question: What's the biggest advantage of going back to school as a retiree?
Answer: If you cut classes, no one calls your parents.

Question: Why does a retiree often say he doesn't miss work, but misses the people he used to work with?
Answer: He is too polite to tell the whole truth.

Question: What do you do all week?
Answer: Monday to Friday; Nothing
Saturday & Sunday I rest.

Delmar Planning and Zoning Meeting

I understand The Delmar Planning and Zoning Meeting scheduled for tonight was cancelled due to the quarter inch of snow we have received. It will be rescheduled.

The Steamer Solvang

On January 24th 1926 the Norwegian steamer Solvang, headed for New York with a load of sugar, collided with the Vacuum Oil Company tanker "Vacuum". The Solvang sank off Cape Henlopen with one crewman drowning and 24 other saved. This wreck is at 175 feet and on the dive tour of ships on the bottom off Cape Henlopen. It is refered to as "terror wreck" on the about Our wrecks website.

Bomber's Moon

Those of us who grew up in the post WWII period were always being told some military term or another by the military veterans. The expression some people used after WWII for a full moon was to call it a Bomber's Moon because back in World War II the main way for the bombardier to see the target was visually. If it was a night bombing raid a full moon would light up the ground and allow the bombardier to see the target, thusly a full moon became a bomber's moon.

The Idle Word

From the Bi State Weekly January 1945


The gray ships steamed throught the darkness
And somebody saw them go,
And somebody rushed to spread the news
That nobody ought to know
The number and length and tonnage
Somebody else was listening
One who should never have heard
And somebody's loving heart was stabbed
By a sorrowful keen edged sword
And a gold star gleams on a service flag
Because of an idle word.

---Frances M. Miller

Teen Canteen 1947

From the Bi-State Weekly January 24, 1947


A Teen-Age Canteen for Delmar youth between the ages of 12 and 21 will open for the first time in the Moose Hall on Saturday January 25.

The Canteen is expected to be a permament enterprise remaining open each Saturday from 7:30 to 11 p. m. Plans call for an admission of 15 cents to help defray expenses. Entertainment will consist of games and dancing and food will be on sale.

A committee composed of Wesley Johnson, chairman, Mildred Stahre, Jean Miles and Seth Ellis will select four adults chaperones each week.

A committee of adults which is assisting the project is made up of Mrs. O. M. Thomas, Mr. and Mrs. Karl Stahre, Earl Smith, Mrs. Raymond Wilkinson, Mrs. Hattie Moore, and Miss Rosalie Selby. The group met with two students from each homeroom in the Delaware and Maryland high schools last week to formulate plans for the canteen.

The committee is interested in receiving donations of equipment, furniture or money. A record player is also urgently needed.

Wednesday, January 23, 2008

The T J Hooper and the Pattie Morrissette- 1935

In the storms of January 23rd and January 24th in 1935, the steamer T J Hooper sank off Fenwick Island, On the 24th the barge Pattie Morrissette broke lost from the tug Peter J Hopper and also sank in the entrance to Delaware bay. Three seaman were lost.

Bill Clinton and Monica Lewinsky

Well it has been about ten years since the Bill Clinton and Monica Lewinsky affair. It was open house for jokes and cartoons over the affair. As usual the only thing that came from it was the taxpayers paid about a zillion dollars for a court case and nothing much came of it. Here is one example of the jokes that went around;

Students were assigned to read 2 books, “Titanic” and “My Life” by Bill Clinton. One smart student turned in the following book report, with the proposition that they were nearly identical stories! His cool professor gave him an A+ for this report:
Titanic: $29.99
Clinton: $29.99
Titanic: Over 3 hours to read
Clinton: Over 3 hours to read
Titanic: The story of Jack and Rose, their forbidden love, and subsequent catastrophe.
Clinton: The story of Bill and Monica, their forbidden love, and subsequent catastrophe.
Titanic: Jack is a starving artist.
Clinton: Bill is a bullshit artist.
Titanic: In one scene, Jack enjoys a good cigar.
Clinton: Ditto for Bill.
Titanic: During ordeal, Rose’s dress gets ruined.
Clinton: Ditto for Monica.
Titanic: Jack teaches Rose to spit.
Clinton: Let’s not go there.
Titanic: Rose gets to keep her jewelry.
Clinton: Monica’s forced to return her gifts.
Titanic: Rose remembers Jack for the rest of her life.
Clinton: Clinton doesn’t remember Jack.
Titanic: Rose goes down on a vessel full of seamen.
Clinton: Monica…..ooh, let’s not go there, either.
Titanic: Jack surrenders to an icy death.
Clinton: Bill goes home to Hillary…basically the same thing.

Tuesday, January 22, 2008

Delmar Police Commission for January

There was a change of power tonight at the Delmar Police Commission. The Delmar Police Commission is made up of three elected officials. It is usually the two mayors and one elected councilperson from either Delaware or Maryland. The elected councilperson stays on the commission for two years than a councilperson from the other state is put on for two years. Tonight, Diane Buckley, Councilperson from Delmar Delaware, was replaced by Carrie Williams, councilperson from Delmar Maryland.

I have some problem with Carrie being on the police commission as the Delmar Police are involved with the Fraternal Order of police (FOP) and Carrie is married to a Wicomico County Detention Center Officer who is involved in the FOP. I view it as a conflict of interest, I don't know if there is an ethic committee in Delmar but it does need to be looked into.

As I had mentioned before there is suppose to be a cleaned up version of the police report provided to the public, altho there was not one tonight, I was told I could get one tomorrow. So I will update this post with whatever added information it has tomorrow.

Among the items discussed was an incident of a shotgun being fired a couple of times on E. East Street. Also discussed was the mental ill person who was making a bomb in their house, causing a three hundred foot area to be blocked off in Delmar Maryland. I understand that person has been released from jail and is now back home. It must be a real hoot to live on E. East street.

Of interested there were no Maryland people in the audience tonight, they just don't seem to care enough about their side of town to take an interest to attend the meetings, in spite of the fact most of the discussions taking place concern the Maryland side of town. Considering the writer's strike there certainly isn't that much on TV to stay home and watch, so why don't they complain at the police meeting?

Diane Buckley, now a member of the public in the audience, asked if everyone remembered in October a firearm shooting also occurred at the same address as the one talked about this month.

Chief Saylor said they were going to start taking action against the landlords who rent to those people. If drugs are involved they can confiscate the landlords house.

Diane Buckley, before being replaced, gave the commission a lists of notes from November 2004 that had never been resolved in the time she had been on the commission. Not to list all of them, but some of the questions never answered were;
1) Who Should have the enforcement powers over the Police Department?
2) What role does the Town manager play regarding the Police Department?
3) Who makes the ultimate decision on what actions are taken with the Police Department in cases of insubordination, derelict of duties or complains?
4) Who hears the complaints against the Police Department?
5) Who appoints the Police Chief?
6) Who does the Police Chief report to?
7) Who does the hiring of new officers?
8) Who determines the pay increases for the Police Department and what are these pay increases based on?
9) Who determine promotions within the Police Department?
10) What guidelines are to be followed in the testing of officers in response to a promotion consideration?
11) What is the role of the Police Commission?
12) What are the Powers of the Police commission?

There are a great many more items on the list, but the above will give you a sampling.

Data from the "public" version of the Police report;
From Oct to Dec 07

There were 79 Delaware E Traffic Citations
There was 1 Delaware Criminal Summons
There was 1 Delaware Equip Repair Order
There were 54 Delaware Warnings
There were 11 Delaware Traffic Citations
There was 2 Delaware Parking Citations
There were 148 Delaware Citations Issued This Quarter

There were 2 Maryland Equip Repair Orders
There were 96 Maryland Warnings
There were was 1 Maryland Parking Citation
There were 2 Maryland Civil Citations
There were 98 Maryland Traffic Citations

There were 199 Maryland Citations Issued This Quarter


Delmar Drug Activity
2 Search Warrants
5 CDS Arrests

D.E.A. Drug Activity
3 Search Warrants
5 CDS Arrests
1 House Seizure

Maryland Voter Registration

As a reminder to those Maryland residents who may wish to registerto vote. Today is the last day to do so. You need to go to 123 Bateman Street in Salisbury until 9 P. M. tonight to do so.

Lets not be a bumper sticker Patriot, the most meaningful and lasting ways to demonstrate patriotism is to go to your polling place and vote – not only in the General Election, but also in the upcoming Primary Election.

The winners of the Primary Election will be your party’s nominee for office – and their name will be placed on the ballot for the General Election. People have a voice in how they are governed and through voting we are given the opportunity to express our patriotism and preferences by electing local and national officials to represent us. Your country, your county and your municipality need you to take a few minutes out of your day and say I care by voting. Everyone should participate in what is perhaps the most meaningful and lasting way to demonstrate patriotism. Voting is your right, your privilege and your duty

1949 Ad - Clover Farm Store

Richard Cullen 1976

From the State Register Jan 22 1976


Richard E. Cullen resigned from the post of town attorney for Delmar, Md. effective January 1 1976. Cullen, who lives in Delmar and practices in Salisbury, sent in his letter of resignation late in December and said the way the government is now being run "is not my concept of local government."

Cullen had been town attorney for 20 years. He had also served as the county attorney for Wicomico County 12 years and was counsel and secretary to the charter committee. The group drafted the basic charter by which Wicomico County is now governed.

Robert Martin, town manager, said that Mr. Cullen's resignation was accepted by the town commission at the January 12 meeting. Martin said a search is underway for a replacement.

Martin said Cullen's resignation pointed out that one reason was his work load had become too heavy.

Cullen could not be reached for comment on his resignation.

Delmar, which sits astride the Maryland-Delaware State Line, also has a town government for the Delaware side.

Events and Meetings this week

Tuesday Jan 22, 10 a. m. Suusex county council meeting
Tuesday Jan 22, 6:30 p.m. Delmar Police Commission Meeting*

Thursday, Jan 24, 6:00 p.m. Sussex County Planning and Zoning
Thursday, Jan 24, 7 p.m. Delmar Planning and Zoning *

*As usual there is no agenda posted on the Delmar Town Website, in addition there are no current minutes of meetings after July.

Monday, January 21, 2008

Bumper Sticker Patriotism

I noticed this past week how many cars on the Maryland side of Delmar have bumper stickers or yellow ribbons or a flag stuck on the car showing their support of America and our troops. Now this is a side of town in which 67 people voted out of 1,227 registered voters in the last town election. It is also a side of town that has streets in such poor shape that some third world countries would be embarrassed by them. Last week a number of blocks of the town were cordoned off due to a suspected bomb. There have been shooting and killings. About 20% of the inmates in the Wicomico County Detention Center have a Delmar Maryland address. Yet only 7% of the Delmar Maryland registered voters had enough patriotism and concern over their town to use their right as American citizens and vote. Each voter was voting for 17 other absent voters, now that is real power showing a small minority of voters can control and direct a majority of the population of Delmar Maryland. They were the ones who put a representative for them into office, not for the 1,160 who didn't vote. Bumper sticker patriotism is an easy patriotism that requires little effort on our parts, it looks good but it has little substance in being a "real" American. Wearing a label pin or putting a yellow ribbon on a car doesn't make one a patriot. What makes a patriot are the actions one takes to make this town a better place to live. I can only hope this poor voter turnout on the Maryland side of town does not roll over to the national election.

Ron Paul, Second in Nevada

Now I have said before I am a Ron Paul supporter so I was pleased that he came in second in the Nevada caucus. Considering Nevada, like most western states, has a high Mormon population and influence, and the news media gives Ron Paul very little "Free" publicity, I thought a second place was very good. Ron Paul has constantly beaten Rudy Giuliani and Duncan Hunter and often Fred Thompson. In Nevada he also beat John McCain, and Mike Huckabee.

Now you may say why are you talking about coming in second, in this world first is the only position to have. Well it isn't. Look back at H. Ross Perot when he ran for President and you can see a second place candidate can influence the outcome of an election. There is also a hint that Ross Perot may run again but I don't think he really wants to be President as his heart isn't in running. We also know in the United States that minorities can often direct and control the majority of the population.

Ron Paul, is a one-time Libertarian candidate and 10-term Republican congressman from Texas, and altho all candidates talk about change, he is the only candidate who actually plans to make real change.

Sunday, January 20, 2008

The Poe Toaster Returns

Quoth the raven, "Nevermore"
Since 1949 the Poe Toaster has paid a visit to the grave of Edgar Allen Poe in Baltimore and left three red roses and a half-filled bottle of french cognac. It is one of the more endearing traditions in Baltimore. Read in USA Today Toast to Poe

Poe is certainly not the only grave in which leaving mementos occur. Almost all writers, of note, have their graves covered in pencils or tablets left by fans. But I don't know of any writer, except Poe, that has a routine memorial on a certain day with the appropriate air of mystery. A similar, but not routine, tradition is at Jim Morrison grave in Paris. The article also discuss Oscar Wilde and Victor Noir and their statue/tombstone.

And for those who want to briefly revisit The Raven

There is also an old (1893) NY Times article about his Poe's grave.

John F. Kennedy Inaugural Address Jan 20 1961

I have said before I was not a fan of John F. Kennedy however I feel his inaugural address is one of the best speeches made and I am reprinting it here.

John F. Kennedy Inaugural Address Friday, January 20, 1961
Vice President Johnson, Mr. Speaker, Mr. Chief Justice, President Eisenhower, Vice President Nixon, President Truman, reverend clergy, fellow citizens, we observe today not a victory of party, but a celebration of freedom—symbolizing an end, as well as a beginning—signifying renewal, as well as change. For I have sworn before you and Almighty God the same solemn oath our forebears prescribed nearly a century and three quarters ago.

The world is very different now. For man holds in his mortal hands the power to abolish all forms of human poverty and all forms of human life. And yet the same revolutionary beliefs for which our forebears fought are still at issue around the globe—the belief that the rights of man come not from the generosity of the state, but from the hand of God.

We dare not forget today that we are the heirs of that first revolution. Let the word go forth from this time and place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans—born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage—and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this Nation has always been committed, and to which we are committed today at home and around the world.

Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and the success of liberty.

This much we pledge—and more.

To those old allies whose cultural and spiritual origins we share, we pledge the loyalty of faithful friends. United, there is little we cannot do in a host of cooperative ventures. Divided, there is little we can do—for we dare not meet a powerful challenge at odds and split asunder.

To those new States whom we welcome to the ranks of the free, we pledge our word that one form of colonial control shall not have passed away merely to be replaced by a far more iron tyranny. We shall not always expect to find them supporting our view. But we shall always hope to find them strongly supporting their own freedom—and to remember that, in the past, those who foolishly sought power by riding the back of the tiger ended up inside.

To those peoples in the huts and villages across the globe struggling to break the bonds of mass misery, we pledge our best efforts to help them help themselves, for whatever period is required—not because the Communists may be doing it, not because we seek their votes, but because it is right. If a free society cannot help the many who are poor, it cannot save the few who are rich.

To our sister republics south of our border, we offer a special pledge—to convert our good words into good deeds—in a new alliance for progress—to assist free men and free governments in casting off the chains of poverty. But this peaceful revolution of hope cannot become the prey of hostile powers. Let all our neighbors know that we shall join with them to oppose aggression or subversion anywhere in the Americas. And let every other power know that this Hemisphere intends to remain the master of its own house.

To that world assembly of sovereign states, the United Nations, our last best hope in an age where the instruments of war have far outpaced the instruments of peace, we renew our pledge of support—to prevent it from becoming merely a forum for invective—to strengthen its shield of the new and the weak—and to enlarge the area in which its writ may run.

Finally, to those nations who would make themselves our adversary, we offer not a pledge but a request: that both sides begin anew the quest for peace, before the dark powers of destruction unleashed by science engulf all humanity in planned or accidental self-destruction.

We dare not tempt them with weakness. For only when our arms are sufficient beyond doubt can we be certain beyond doubt that they will never be employed.

But neither can two great and powerful groups of nations take comfort from our present course—both sides overburdened by the cost of modern weapons, both rightly alarmed by the steady spread of the deadly atom, yet both racing to alter that uncertain balance of terror that stays the hand of mankind's final war.

So let us begin anew—remembering on both sides that civility is not a sign of weakness, and sincerity is always subject to proof. Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate.

Let both sides explore what problems unite us instead of belaboring those problems which divide us.

Let both sides, for the first time, formulate serious and precise proposals for the inspection and control of arms—and bring the absolute power to destroy other nations under the absolute control of all nations.

Let both sides seek to invoke the wonders of science instead of its terrors. Together let us explore the stars, conquer the deserts, eradicate disease, tap the ocean depths, and encourage the arts and commerce.

Let both sides unite to heed in all corners of the earth the command of Isaiah—to "undo the heavy burdens ... and to let the oppressed go free."

And if a beachhead of cooperation may push back the jungle of suspicion, let both sides join in creating a new endeavor, not a new balance of power, but a new world of law, where the strong are just and the weak secure and the peace preserved.

All this will not be finished in the first 100 days. Nor will it be finished in the first 1,000 days, nor in the life of this Administration, nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet. But let us begin.

In your hands, my fellow citizens, more than in mine, will rest the final success or failure of our course. Since this country was founded, each generation of Americans has been summoned to give testimony to its national loyalty. The graves of young Americans who answered the call to service surround the globe.

Now the trumpet summons us again—not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need; not as a call to battle, though embattled we are—but a call to bear the burden of a long twilight struggle, year in and year out, "rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation"—a struggle against the common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself.

Can we forge against these enemies a grand and global alliance, North and South, East and West, that can assure a more fruitful life for all mankind? Will you join in that historic effort?

In the long history of the world, only a few generations have been granted the role of defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. I do not shrink from this responsibility—I welcome it. I do not believe that any of us would exchange places with any other people or any other generation. The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will light our country and all who serve it—and the glow from that fire can truly light the world.

And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country.

My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man.

Finally, whether you are citizens of America or citizens of the world, ask of us the same high standards of strength and sacrifice which we ask of you. With a good conscience our only sure reward, with history the final judge of our deeds, let us go forth to lead the land we love, asking His blessing and His help, but knowing that here on earth God's work must truly be our own.