Friday, November 04, 2011

West To Ohio

April 16th, 1834 Elisha Hasting started to the state of Ohio to Marysville, Levin Hasting to the same place on Wednesday Entry from the Diary of Isaac Sullivan, a Storekeeper, who lived between Portsville and Bethel Delaware.

In researching family trees frequently you find you have cousins in Ohio. In the 1800’s there was a great migration from the East coast to Ohio and other parts of the Old Northwest Territory (Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois). Delmarva had thousands of people migrate west. Ohio in 1800 had a population of 45,000 white people and by 1840 it had 1.4 million. Usually People from Delmarva would settle in Southern Ohio because they crossed thru the Cumberland Gap which took them into the southern end of the state.

So why did they go west? The incentives for migration were many and varied since each person responded to factors which either repelled him from his old home or attracted him to a new home. There were hardship reasons; from the effect of the Revolutionary war and War of 1812 where the British burnt and destroyed family property and farms. There was the unusual climatic aberrations of 1816 occurred because of the 1815 volcanic Mount Tambora eruption on the island of Sumbawa, Indonesia. It created a year without a summer in which the crops failed. In 1819 a financial panic swept across the country. The growth in trade that followed the War of 1812 came to an abrupt halt. Unemployment mounted, banks failed, mortgages were foreclosed, and agricultural prices fell by half. Investment in western lands collapsed. The Land Act of 1820 reduced the price of federal land to $1.25 acre, with a minimum purchase of 80 acres and a down payment of only $100. Further, the act gave squatters the right to “preempt” these conditions and purchase the land even more cheaply if they had made ‘improvements’ to the land like the building of homes, fences, or mills. Various land companies and speculators, most importantly the Ohio Company of Associates, the Connecticut Land Company, and John Cleves Symmes, began the process of buying and selling Ohio lands and advertising heavily in East coast towns and Europe.

Revolutionary War veterans were given land in Ohio. The very name Cincinnati came from the Society of the Cincinnati, which gets its name from Cincinnatus, the Roman general and dictator, who saved the city of Rome from destruction and then quietly retired to his farm. The society honored the ideal of return to civilian life by military officers following the Revolution rather than imposing military rule. To this day, Cincinnati in particular, and Ohio in general, is home to a disproportionately large number of descendants of Revolutionary War soldiers who were granted lands in the state.

Frequently correspondence with friends and families who had migrated before - It was very common for recent migrants to write to family and friends back home to report on their journeys and their successes (or lack thereof) in their new homes. In most cases, these letters included both subtle and outright requests for the recipient of the letter and his/her family to travel to the West in order to join the writer in his community. Which created pockets of Delawareans since they settled in areas where other Delawarean settled. New Holland, Pickaway County Ohio is one area were a number settled.

And of course even on Delmarva there are always people who are ready to travel anywhere for the adventure.

Sept 8, 1828 John Gordy of William of Maryland and Joseph Leonard started to the Western Country on Monday Entry from the Diary of Isaac Sullivan

Various routes were followed by the settlers depending on the time period they left Delmarva. The Allegheny Mountains posed the greatest barrier to westward expansion. The two principal routes were overland from Baltimore to Redstone on the Monongahela River via the National Road (today RT 40); or by the Forbes Road (Rt30) from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh. At the end of these two overland treks, the settlers bought or constructed boats and rafts and continued their journey by water. They came by pack-horse train up an Indian Trail. They came down the Ohio River, the whole family in a Flatboat, with team and wagon aboard. They came by several trails in Conestoga wagons, pulled by yokes of oxen or teams of horses, four horse teams.

Interestingly you can look at the families from Delaware living in Ohio and see a general trend as how they arrived in Ohio. In the 1860 census the people born in Delaware and living in Ohio are mostly in their 60’s. The husband would be from Delaware, his wife would be from Virginia, or Maryland, or Tennessee or Kentucky. The Children would be born in Ohio. It usually indicated that he went west by way of the Wilderness Trail which took him thru those states.

From 1825 to 1850, the National Road was the primary route immigrants and east coast settlers used in their western migration. Small towns sprung up along the pike. By 1837 14 of the state's 32 established stage routes connected to the National Road. Already established towns like Zanesville and Cambridge began to take on added importance along the new road, and completely new town were being laid out along the pike.

Looking at the 1860 census of people born in Delaware but living in Ohio we can see the people from Delaware mainly settled in Hamilton County, Pickaway County and Ross County. For every person from Delaware there were ten from Maryland that were living in Ohio. The Maryland people were all over Ohio with large pockets in Montgomery and Hamilton County. For every person from Delaware there were twenty from Virginia that moved to Ohio. In general people from Delmarva settled in southern Ohio due to the route they took to Ohio.

By 1860 most were over 50 years of age. The ones from Delaware that were tradesmen seem to have settled in Hamilton County where Cincinnati is located. Cincinnati was a melting pot of east coast people mixed with a large number of Germans and Irish. It was a riverfront town that was wild. The tradesman were Brickmakers, finishers, carpenters, shoemakers, chaircaners, blacksmith etc. Among the Delawareans settled there in 1860 were Wm Bell with a wife from Virginia and children born in Ohio, Henry Benson and wife with children born Delaware, Illinois and Ohio, Susanna Burroughs with children born in Ohio, Benj Dale with a wife from Virginia, Wm Elliott and family from Delaware etc

Delawareans in Pickaway county were mostly farmers with many settling in Perry township (John Bennett, Andrew Jester, Andrew Kimmey, Thomas Truitt, William Pennywell, Sarah Rowe, and Isaac Ecord), or Monroe towship (Elijah Lingo, Thomas w Bennett, John Darley, Elias Moore.) In Ross county they mainly settled in Deerfield Township ( Benj Brown (wife from Tenn.) John Crumpton, John Dowing Wm Hastings, Solomon Kimmey Wm Reed, Lydia Timmons, Ed Wilson , David Adams, Wm Crawford, etc.)

Hiram Hearn from Delaware picked up a wife in Ohio and in 1860 ending up living in Hardin County, McDonald Township, over in Dudley township was Sam Lingo (wife from Virginia), Isaac Short with wife Margaret both from Delaware, Geo Wingate, etc.

So when you post those on-line inquiries about family trees don't be suprised if someone from Ohio doesn't answer your inquiry.

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